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Czerny's Letters on the Art of Playing the Piano

Letter I - First Rudiments of the Piano.
Letter II - On Touch, Tone, and the Mode of treating the Pianoforte.
Letter III - On Time, Subdivision of the Notes, and Fingering.
Letter IV - On Expression, and Graces or Embellishments.
Letter V - On the Keys, on Studying a Piece, and on Playing in the Presence of Others.
Letter VI - On the Selection of Compositions most suitable for each Pianist.

Friedrich Schiller's "An die Freude", the "Ode to Joy"

This poem was written in 1785 and published in the following year in Schiller's own magazine, Rheinischen Thalia. In 1793, Schiller's friend Bartholomäus Ludwig Fischenich wrote to Schiller's wife from Bonn that Beethoven had declared his intention "to compose Schiller's Freude, indeed strophe by strophe. I expect something perfect, for as far as I know him he is wholly devoted to the great and the sublime." Symphony No. 9 in D minor, Op. 125 premiered at the Kärntnertor-Theater in Vienna, on May 7, 1824. Though Beethoven was completely deaf, he went through the motions of conducting it. At the end of the work, the contralto in the solo quartet, Hungarian Caroline Unger, had to tug at his sleeve and turn him to face the audience. She would later write to Sir George Grove:

"His turning round, and the sudden conviction thereby forced on everybody that he had not done so before because he could not hear what was going on, acted like an electric shock on all present, and a volcanic explosion of sympathy and admiration followed, which was repeated again and again, and seemed as if it would never end."

The first three lines are Beethoven's own, the remainder of the text is Schiller's.

German Original
English Translation

Beethoven's Heilegenstadt Testament

For my brothers Carl and [Johann] Beethoven

O ye men who think or say that I am hostile, stubborn or misanthropic, how greatly do you wrong me!

Read the whole text

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